Baking powder (1 teaspoon) 1/4 teaspoon baking soda + 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
Baking powder (1 1/4 teaspoons) 1/2 teaspoon baking soda + 2 tablespoons vinegar
Black pepper White pepper or paprika
Bouillon (1 cup) 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup hot water
Bread crumbs (1 cup) 3/4 cup cracker crumbs
Butter (1 cup) 1 cup margarine or 1 cup Vegetable shortening Or 7/8 cup lard
Buttermilk or sour milk (1 cup) 1 cup yogurt or 1 cup whole milk + 1 tablespoon lemon juice or 1 tablespoon vinegar or 1 ¾ teaspoons cream of tartar
Carrots Parsnips or baby white turnips
Chocolate Semisweet (1 2/3 ounces) 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate + 4 teaspoons sugar
Unsweetened (1 ounce – 1 square) 3 tablespoons cocoa powder + 1 tablespoon shortening
Cream,heavy (1 cup) 7/8 cup buttermilk or Yogurt + 3 tablespoons Butter
Croutons Cubes of crustless white Bread sautéed in butter
Curry powder Tumeric plus cardamom, ginger power, and cumin
Dry mustard Prepared mustard
Egg, for thickening or baking 2 egg yolk
Flour, All-purpose, for Thickening 1 1/2 teaspoons cornstarch or 1 1/2 teaspoons Arrowroot or 1 tablespoon Quick-cooking tapioca
All-purpose, for Bread baking Up to 1/2 cup bran, whole-wheat flour, or Cornmeal + enough all-purpose flour to fill cup
Cake (1 cup sifted) 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
Fresh herbs (1 tablespoon) 1/3 to 1/2 teaspoon dried herbs
Honey (1 cup) 1 1/4 cups sugar + ¼ cup liquid
Lemon juice Vinegar or lime juice or White wine
Mayonnaise,homemade (1/2 cup) 1/2 cup commercial mayonnaise +1/2 teaspoon lemon juice + 1/2 teaspoon prepared mustard
Olive oil Vegetable oil
Onion, chopped (1 cup) 1 tablespoon instant minced onion, reconstituted
Parsley Chevril
Scallions Green or white onions, Or onion powder to taste
Shallots 2 parts onions, + 1 part garlic
Sugar, granulated (1 tablespoon) 1 tablespoon maple sugar
Sugar, granulated (1 cup) 1 1/3 cups confectioners’ sugar or 1 cup molasses + 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
Tomato sauce (2 cups) 3/4 cup tomato paste + 1 cup water
Wine vinegar Cider vinegar with a little red wine or White distilled vinegar with a little white wine
Yeast, active dry 1 3/5 – ounce cake yeast (1 tablespoon – 1 package)

According to Jewish dietary laws, certain food items, such as pork Products, shellfish, and some cuts of beef, are not allowed to be eaten. Also, meat and dairy products are not to be eaten at the same time.Below is a list of ingredients that may be problematic in preparing a Kosher dish. On the right are acceptable replacements for these items.
Ingredients Substitute
Butter In pastry: all-vegetable margarine or vegetable shortening
Butter To sauté vegetables: all-vegetable margarine
Butter To fry meat or poultry: equal parts rendered chicken fat and oil: oil: equal parts oil and vegetable margarine
Ham or bacon Used as flavoring: an equal quantity of anchovies, mushrooms, or pungent vegetables
Milk or cream In chicken stew, soup, or sauce for each ½ cup, ½ cup chicken stock missed with 1 egg yolk and 1 teaspoon cornstarch.
Milk or cream In pancakes: an equal quantity of water, 1 tablespoon oil for each cup of flour, and twice as many eggs.
Shellfish An equal amount of firm fish that has both fins and scales
Without changing your diet, you can significantly reduce your intake of fat by making the following substitutions for basic ingredients:
Ingredients Substitution
Baker’s chocolate unsweetened for each ounce, 1/4 cup cocoa powder + 2 tsp. margarine
Butter on vegetables and popcorn: butter substitute such as butter buds
Butter for sautéing onions and garlic: nonstick cooking spray and broth in a nonstick pan To prevent burning: Chicken broth
Crème fraiche Plain low-fat yogurt
Eggs For scrambled eggs and omelettes: egg substitute such as egg beaters
Eggs for baking: 2 egg whites for 1 egg; 3 egg whites or 1 egg and 1 white for 2 eggs
Heavy cream for whipped cream; substitute cool whip or low-fat whipped cream in a spray can
Heavy cream for cooking: replace 1/2 cup cream with 1 tbsp. butter buds combined with 1/3 cup skim milk
Roux Use cornstarch, arrowroot, or pureed vegetables, or make the roux with 1 tbsp. butter buds and 1/3 cup skim milk instead of the butter
Sour cream Plain low-fat yogurt or 1 cup low-fat cottage cheese combined with 2 tbsp. skim milk and 1 tbsp. lemon juice in the blender
Whole Milk Skim or Low-fat milk

*source for the information above: